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With the rapid development of asphalt pavement, the drainage capacity of asphalt pavement is becoming more and more demanding. Therefore, it is imperative to study the permeable asphalt mixture. The air voids and the connected air voids are the main factors affecting the drainage function and low- temperature performance of asphalt pavement. In order to solve the drainage and low-temperature cracking problem, it is proposed to incorporate a certain amount of polyester fiber into the permeable asphalt mixture. This paper studies the air voids and low-temperature performance of asphalt mixture with different polyester fiber contents. It is concluded that with the increase of polyester fiber content, both the air voids and the connected air voids decrease first and then increase and reach the minimum value when the polyester fiber content is 0.4%. At this time, the low-temperature crack resistance of the permeable polyester fiber asphalt mixture is also the best.
In permeable asphalt mixture, it is difficult to satisfy the high viscosity requirement by using ordinary modified asphalt alone, but the viscosity can be increased by incorporating with polyester fiber [3,4], and its viscosity also increases with the increase of the polyester content . Polyester fiber has a large specific surface area and can absorb some asphalt to reduce leakage loss. In addition, polyester fiber can also absorb saturated hydrocarbon and aromatic hydrocarbon in the asphalt mixture and increase the adhesion force between the asphalt and aggregate surface . In recent years, it has been observed that polyester fibers can increase the compressive strength, water stability, and temperature sensitivity of SMA mixtures [7-10]. There is a large number of fiber-modified asphalt binders and fiber-modified asphalt mixtures that can be used to deal with major flexible pavement problems such as rutting, fatigue cracking, thermal cracking, and loosening . Furthermore, some drainage problems are investigated in porous mixture and the results show that polyester fiber incorporation reduces drainage problems [12, 13].
The permeable asphalt mixture can quickly remove the road surface water due to the existence of more connected voids, but the semiclosed voids will leave some water in the voids, which will cause frost heaving damage of asphalt pavement at low temperature. Low-temperature cracking is one of the main diseases of asphalt pavement, which greatly affects the function of pavement. Some studies have shown that polyester fiber has a certain effect on the low-temperature crack resistance of the asphalt mixture [22, 23]. The incorporation of polyester fiber can increase the toughness of the asphalt mixture, reduce the sensitivity of the mixture to water, improve the crack resistance of the mixture, and prolong the service life of the mixture at low temperature [5, 24, 25].
3.2. Effect of Polyester Fiber Content on Low-Temperature Crack Resistance. Bending test is used to analyze the effect of polyester fiber on the low-temperature crack resistance of the permeable asphalt mixture. The test results are shown in Table 8.
The maximum flexure tensile strain is an index to measure the low-temperature deformation ability of the asphalt mixture. The larger the maximum flexure tensile strain, the larger the deformation range of the asphalt mixture and the better the low-temperature crack resistance. It can be seen from Table 8 that the maximum flexure tensile strain of the permeable asphalt mixture is 1575 [mu][epsilon], 2538 [mu][epsilon], 3308 [mu][epsilon], 4174 [mu][epsilon], 2014 [mu][epsilon], and 2266 [mu][epsilon], respectively. When the polyester fiber content is 0.4%, the maximum flexure tensile strain reaches the maximum, 4174[mu][epsilon]. At this time, the low-temperature crack resistance of the permeable polyester fiber asphalt mixture is the optimal. This is because the polyester fiber exerts the reinforcing action and bridging effect in the mixture, which enhances the adhesion between the aggregate and the asphalt and increases the crack resistance of the mixture .
The drainage effect of permeable asphalt pavement depends on the content of air voids. The higher the air void content, the better the drainage effect and the poorer low-temperature crack resistance. As can be seen from Table 8, when the polyester fiber content is 0%, the air voids of the permeable asphalt mixture is 19.7%, which is close to the target air voids. However, both the flexural tensile strength and the maximum flexure tensile strain of the permeable asphalt mixture are the minimum. When the content of polyester fiber is 0.4%, the air void of the permeable asphalt mixture is 19.1%. Compared with the polyester fiber content 0%, the air voids decrease by 3.0% and drainage effect slightly decreases. But the flexural tensile strength increases by 86.6%, and the maximum flexure tensile strain increases by 165.0%. Therefore, polyester fiber can improve the low-temperature crack resistance of the permeable asphalt mixture and reduce its drainage capacity slightly. But it still meets the specification requirements .
The bending failure of asphalt mixture girders is mainly caused by cracking along the interface of aggregate. The encountered large particles during cracking produce extrusion and shear and cause damage to the SBS-modified asphalt mixture under low-temperature conditions. It can be seen that good interface strength is an important guarantee to prevent cracking of the mixture . In addition, the agglomeration of polyester fiber in asphalt leads to uneven distribution of asphalt film and uneven distribution of polyester fiber network structure in asphalt . This leads to the discontinuous phase of SBS-modified asphalt, which greatly reduces the interface strength of SBS-modified asphalt mixture. Therefore, under the action of load, the stress concentration of SBS-modified asphalt mixture appears and causes cracking in low temperature.
It can be seen from Figure 9 that with the increase of the amount of polyester fiber, the flexural tensile strength of permeable polyester fiber asphalt mixture increases first and then decreases and reaches a peak when the polyester fiber content is 0.4%. The flexural tensile strength is an indicator to measure the effect of low-temperature shrinkage stress on the asphalt mixture. The higher the flexural tensile strength, the stronger the ability of the mixture to resist low-temperature damage and the better the low-temperature crack resistance. The flexural stiffness modulus can reflect the difficulty of low-temperature cracking of the asphalt mixture to a certain extent. The smaller the bending stiffness modulus, the greater the energy required for the mixture to crack and the better the crack resistance. It can be seen from Figure 10 that the flexural stiffness modulus has a minimum value of 1594 MPa when the polyester fiber content is 0.4%, and the permeable polyester fiber asphalt mixture has the best low-temperature crack resistance.
Through the comprehensive analysis of Figures 9 and 10, it is shown that the addition of polyester fiber improves the viscosity and stiffness of SBS-modified asphalt and delays the low-temperature cracking of the permeable asphalt mixture. When polyester fiber content is lower than 0.4%, the low-temperature performance of the permeable asphalt mixture gradually increases, the polyester fiber is dispersed inside the structure to form an interface layer, and the structural asphalt on the interface layer has a larger viscosity than the free asphalt outside. The close combination of the aggregate and the polyester fiber gives play to the reinforcing action effect and bridging effect and improves the low-temperature performance of the asphalt mixture. However, when the content of polyester fiber is more than 0.4%, the low-temperature performance of the permeable asphalt mixture begins to decrease and the lowtemperature performance of the asphalt mixture is reduced, which is mainly due to the obvious agglomeration effect and the decrease of the adhesion between the asphalt and the aggregated with continuous increase of polyester fiber.
It can also be seen from Table 8 that when only the maximum flexural tensile strain or flexural stiffness modulus is used to evaluate the low-temperature performance of the asphalt mixture, the conclusion differs to flexural tensile strength. Therefore, the flexural tensile strength, the maximum flexure tensile strain, and flexural stiffness modulus index should be adopted in the evaluation of the lowtemperature crack resistance. Considering the three indexes comprehensively, when the polyester fiber content is 0.4%, the permeable asphalt mixture has the best low-temperature crack resistance.
It can be seen from Figure 12 that the flexural tensile strength of the permeable polyester fiber asphalt mixture has a good linear correlation with the air voids. As the air voids increase, the flexural strength of the mixture decreases continuously. It shows that the larger the air voids, the worse the ability of the mixture to resist low-temperature damage and the worse the low-temperature crack resistance. The relationship between air voids and connected air voids is linearly increasing, and the connected air voids is the key factor in controlling the drainage of the mixture . Therefore, it is very important to choose a suitable air void on the premise of ensuring the low-temperature performance and drainage performance of the asphalt mixture. According to the analysis of Figures 11 and 12, it can be concluded that when the air void is 19.1%, it not only meets the requirements of drainage function but also ensures the low-temperature crack resistance of the mixture. 2b1af7f3a8