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Download the package now. Release Date: November 10, 2013For more information about how to download Microsoft support files, click the following article number to view the article in the Microsoft Knowledge Base:
The vmstat output shows that the system has about 176 Mbytes of free memory. In fact, on Solaris 8 or later, the free memory shown in the vmstat output includes the free list and the cache list. The free list is the amount of memory that is actually free. This is memory that has no association with any file or process. The cache list is also the free memory; it is the majority of the file system cache. The cache list is linked to the free list; if the free list is exhausted, then memory pages will be taken from the head of the cache list.
To determine if the system is running low on physical memory, look at the sr column in the vmstat output, where sr means scan rate. Under low memory, Solaris begins to scan for memory pages that have not been accessed recently and moves them to the free list. On Solaris 8 or later, a non-zero value of sr means the system is running low on physical memory.
These page activities are categorized as executable ( epi, epo, epf), anonymous ( api, apo, apf), and filesystem ( fpi, fpo, fpf). Executable memory means the memory pages that are used for program and library text. Anonymous memory means the memory pages that are not associated with files. For example, anonymous memory is used for process heaps and stacks. Filesystem memory means the memory pages that are used for file I/O. When the process pages are swapping in or out, you will see a large number in the api and apo columns. When the system is busy reading files from the file system or writing files to the file system, you will see a large number in the fpi and fpo columns. Paging activities are not necessarily bad, but constantly paging out pages and bringing in new pages, especially when the free column is low, is bad for performance.
The default memory allocator in libc is not good for multi-threaded applications when a concurrent malloc or free operation occurs frequently, especially for multi-threaded C++ applications. This is because creating and destroying C++ objects is part of C++ application development style. When the default libc allocator is used, the heap is protected by a single heap-lock, causing the default allocator not to be scalable for multi-threaded applications due to heavy lock contentions during malloc or free operations. It's easy to detect this problem with Solaris tools, as follows.
Libumem is a user-space port of the Solaris kernel memory allocator. Libumem was introduced since Solaris 9 update 3. Libumem is scalable and can be used in both development and production environments. Libumem provides high-performance concurrent malloc and free operations. In addition, libumem includes powerful debugging features that can be used for checking memory leaks and other illegal memory uses.
Some micro-benchmarks compare libumem versus libc with respect to malloc and free performance. In the micro-benchmark, the multi-threaded mtmalloc test allocates and frees block of memory of varying size. It then repeats the process, also over another fixed number of iterations. The result shows with 10 threads calling malloc or free, the performance with libumem is about 5 or 6 times better than the performance with the default allocator in libc. In some real-world applications, using libumem can improve performance for C++ multi-threaded applications from 30 percent to 5 times, depending on workload characteristics and the number of CPUs and threads.
A common problem in using libumem is that the application can core-dump, whereas the application runs well using libc. The reason is that libumem has an internal audit mechanism by design. An application running well under libumem indicates that the application does well in managing memory. The unexpected core dumps are typically caused by free(), such as
Another problem in using libumem is that the process size is slightly larger than when libc is used. This is normal because libumem has sophisticated internal cache mechanisms. This restriction should not be a real problem; in fact, by its design, libumem is very efficient and doing very well in memory fragmentation control for small allocations and for freeing memory.
If you install your cluster on infrastructure that the installation program provisions, RHCOS images are downloaded to the target platform during installation. Suitable Ignition config files, which control the RHCOS configuration, are also downloaded and used to deploy the machines.
The VirtualHere USB Server enables remote access to USB devices over a network. The server runs entirely in userspace, therefore it is inherently more stable than kernel based solutions. VirtualHere was the first company to create this entirely userspace USB server. No compilation or kernel modules are required, and now VirtualHere has innovated again! The server is entirely statically complied, no linux run-time libraries are required at all on the server! The server can be run as a console only daemon, for easy integration into run-level scripts. Diagnostic messages are output to syslog.
Memcheck reports leaks in five categories: definitely lost, indirectly lost, possibly lost, still reachable, and suppressed. The first four categories indicate different kinds of memory blocks that weren't freed before the program ended. If you aren't interested in specific blocks, you can tell Valgrind not to report them (you'll see how shortly). The summary also shows you the number of bytes lost and how many blocks they are in, which tells you whether you are losing lots of small allocations, or a few large ones.
In the previous example, it is clear we should free banner after use. We could do that at the end of the output_report function by adding free (banner). Then, when running under Valgrind again, it will happily say All heap blocks were freed -- no leaks are possible.
Note how we again forget to call free, this time at the end of main. Now, when running under Valgrind, Memcheck will report still reachable: 14 bytes in 1 blocks and zero bytes lost in any other category.
But the output offers no details of loss records with backtraces for memory blocks that are still reachable, even though we ran with --leak-check=full. This is because Memcheck thinks the error is not very serious. The memory is still reachable, so the program could still be using it. In theory, you could free it at the end of the program, but all memory is freed at the end of the program anyway.
Although still reachable memory isn't a real issue in theory, you might still want to look into it. You might want to see whether you could free a given block earlier, which might lower memory usage for longer running programs. Or because you really like to see that statementAll heap blocks were freed -- no leaks are possible. To get the details you need, add --show-leak-kinds=reachable or --show-leak-kinds=all to the Valgrind command line (together with --leak-check=full). Now you will also get backtraces showing where still reachable memory blocks were allocated in your program.
But Memcheck thinks this is most likely a mistake. And in our example, as in most such cases, Memcheck is right. When walking a data structure without keeping a reference to the structure itself, we can never reuse or free the structure. We should have used the numbers pointer as a base and used an (array) index to pass the current record as output_report (&numbers[i]). Then, Memcheck would have reported the data blocks as still reachable. (There is still a memory leak, but not a severe one, because there is a direct pointer to the memory and it could easily be freed.)
In the previous example Memcheck reported a possibly lost block because the numbers pointer was still pointing inside an allocated block. We might be tempted to fix it by simply clearing the pointer after the output_report calls by doing numbers = NULL; to indicate that there is no current numbers list to report. But then we have also just lost the last pointer to our memory data blocks. We should have freed the memory first, but we can't do it now because we don't have a pointer to the start of the data structure anymore:
Note how there are no backtraces for the indirectly lost blocks. This is because Memcheck believes you will probably fix that when you fix the definitely lost block. If you do free the definitely lost block, but not the blocks of memory that were indirectly pointed to, next time you run your partially fixed program under Valgrind, Memcheck will report those indirectly lost blocks as definitely lost (and now with a backtrace). So by iteratively fixing the definitely lost memory leaks, you will eventually fix all indirectly lost memory leaks. 2b1af7f3a8